Friday, 20 July 2012

kesan-kesan kegiatan manusia terhadap alam sekitar


OBJEKTIF KAJIAN
Objektif khusus Kajian Geografi ini dijalankan untuk :

a)    Mengenal pasti kegiatan yang dijalankan oleh manusia
b)   Mengenal pasti kesan kegiatan manusia terhadap alam sekitar.


KAWASAN KAJIAN
          Saya memilih Aquaria KLCC sebagai kawasan kajian saya. Rasionalnya saya mendapati tempat ini sesuai dengan tema folio. Selain itu, kawasan ini amat dekat dengan rumah saya iaitu lebih kurang 10 kilometer.
          Aquaria terletak di tingkat “Concourse” Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre, bertentangan dengan kafe Starbucks.
Description: http://www.aquariaklcc.com/images/aquaria_map.jpg











KAEDAH KAJIAN
          Saya telah mengguna beberapa kaedah untuk mengumpul dan memperoleh maklumat maklumat yang digunakan dalam kajian ini. Kaedah tersebut ialah :
a)    Lawatan dan pemerhatian. Kaedah ini digunakan untuk mengetahui kesan kegiatan manusia terhadap alam sekitar. Selain itu, permerhatian dijalankan untuk melihat jenis-jenis fauna yang terdapat di dalam dunia.

b)   Pembacaan. Kaedah ini dijalankan untuk mengetahui tentang kesan kegiatan manusia yang lebih mendalam. Laman web dan buku-buku merupakan bahan rujukan saya.


HASIL KAJIAN


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Pembangunan sektor pertanian melalui penukaran tanah dari hutan kepada pertanian telah mengakibatkan berlakunya penebangan hutan secara meluas.Selain daripada mengurangkan jumlah hutan asal dan biodiversiti hutan serta  hidupan liar,penebangan hutan juga turut menyumbang kepada hakisan tanah,kerosakan cerun dan tanah runtuh di Malaysia.

Penebangan hutan yang berterusan dan kemusnahan hutan di kawasan tadahan air akan menjejaskan bekalan air dan kualiti sumber air, menjejaskan kemampuan pengambilan semula air bawah tanah dan menyebabkan lebih banyak banjir berlaku di kawasan tanah rendah.

Pembangunan pertanian menyokong US$30 bilion nilai jualan racun makhluk perosak setiap tahun diseluruh dunia. Kira-kira 40% daripada jumlah ini dibelanjakan di negara membangun untuk sebatian toksik seperti orgonofosfat dan organoklorin. 

Selain menimbulkan masalah pencemaran air akibat penggunaan secara intensif ini, rakyat Malaysia yang menggunakan penyembor serta operator mesin penyembur racun makhluk perosak akan menghadapi risiko akibat pendedahan terutamanya melalui kulit, apabila menggunakan peralatan yang tidak sempurna untuk mencampurkan atau menyembur racun makhluk perosak. 


PEMBALAKAN

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Kesan-kesan pembalakan ialah akan menyebabkan kemusnahan habitat semula jadi bagi flora dan fauna. Umum mengetahui bahawa hutan merupakan habitat semula jadi bagi pelbagai jenis tumbuhan dan spesies hidupan liar yang semakin pupus. Kemusnahan hutan akan menyebabkan kemusnahan tempat tinggal bagi tumbuhan dan hidupan liar tersebut. Sebagai contohnya,banyak kawasan hutan yang dimusnahkan kerana pembangunan atau aktiviti pembalakan secara haram. Tanpa tempat tinggal yang selamat,haiwan-haiwan ini akan mati dan seterusnya pupus. Selain itu,hutan kaya dengan tumbuhan-tumbuhan yang menjadi sumber ubat at au penawar bagi pelbagai penyakit. Kemusnahan hutan bererti kehilangan bahan-bahan yang berharga ini. 

Seterusnya,kekurangan hutan akan menyebabkan suhu dunia akan meningkat.Hal ini demikian kerana hutan berperanan untuk menyerap gas karbon dioksida dan membekalkan gas oksigen kepada hidupan di muka bumi. ]ika hutan ditebang dengan sewenang- wenangnya,maka peluang untuk menambah isi padu gas oksigen dalam udara akan berkurangan.

Peratus gas karbon dioksida pula dalam udara akan terus meningkat. Hal ini akan menyebabkan berlakunya peningkatan suhu dunia. Apabila situasi ini berlaku,jumlah isi padu lautan juga akan bertambah sebagai akibat pencairan ais di Kutub Utara dan Kutub Selatan. Sebagai contohnya,fenomena pemanasan global berpunca daripada aktiviti penebangan atau pengurangan kawasan hutan yang leluasa di dunia.

Sebagai akibat fenomena ini, kesan rumah hijau turut berlaku.
Selain itu,hutan-hutan yang diterokai menyebabkan tanah yang dilindungi terdedah kepada pelbagai bencana alam.Hal ini berpunca daripada hutan tidak lagi dapat berfungsi sebagai kawasan tadahan hujan.

Apabila hujan lebat melanda sesuatu kawasan,air yang turun tersebut terus menghakis permukaan bumi yang gondol tersebut lalu membawa hakisan tanah-tanah ini ke dalam sungai. Kejadian ini dapat kita lihat,misalnya pada kejadian tanah runtuh. Kejadian ini berlaku kerana ketiadaan akar tumbuhan yang meneengkam tanah,terutamanya tebing atau tanah tinggi. Sungai pula akan menjadi semakin cetek sebagai akibat pemendakan tanah lumpur di dasarnya. Keadaan ini akan menyebabkan banjir kilat lebih mudah melanda.
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PERINDUSTRIAN

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Sektor  perindustrian amat berkembang di Malaysia.Pelbagai jenis kilang telah menghasilkan bahan buangan ke dalam sungai,terdapat kebimbangan berkaitan dengan kesan alam sekitar daripada sektor  ini. Di antaranya ialah pencemaran sumber air di kawasan tapak perkilangan.Pihak kilang akan biarkan sisa kumbahan serta bahan toksid yang beracun mengalir ke dalam sungai yang berdekatan.

Tindakan kilang tersebut secara langsung telah menyebabkan kehidupan sungai seperti ikan,udang mati. Selain itu,pihak kilang turut akan melepaskan asap-asap yang hitam dan kotor ke udara atmosfera.

Proses menghasilkan barang dari kilang secara besar-besaran akan menghasilkan asap hitam. Asap hitam tersebut yang mengandungi pelbagai CFC serta karbon diosida boleh menjejaskan kesihatan manusia seperti mengakibatkan penyakit paru-paru jika seseorang itu dihisap.


PERIKANAN

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Kesan menjalankan aktiviti perikanan pertamanya ialah kepupusan fauna dan flora lautan. Kegiatan akuakultur telah menyebabkan kepupusan kawasan paya bakau di tepi pantai. Contohnya, hutan paya bakau muara Sungai Pulai, Johor ditebang untuk penternakan udang galah. Penangkapan ikan secara berlebihan dengan penggunaan pukat tunda adalah ancaman terbesar terhadap habitat atau pertumbuhan terumbu karang. Ianya telah menyebabkan kira-kira64%terumbu karang berada dalam keadaan terancam.

Selain itu, pencemaran laut sering berlaku kesan tumpahan minyak daripada bot nelayan. Hal ini menyebabkan pembiakan ikan tidak aktif dan akhirnya bilangan ikan akan semakin berkurangan. Pembuangan sisa-sisa dari kawasan petempatan ikan seperti Kampung Air, Sabah mencemarkan air laut.

Seterusnya, di kawasan perkampungan nelayan seperti Nenasi dan Beserah yang menjalankan industri kecil dan sederhana seperti belacan, cencaluk, ikan kering dan udang kering telah menyebabkan pencemaran bau busuk dikawasan sekitar.

Penangkapan ikan secara besar-besaran akan menyebabkan terumbu karang menjadi pupus. Tanpa ikan dan haiwan vertebrata laut, populasi karang akan digantikan oleh populasi alga. Alga mencegah penempelan dan pertumbuhan larva polip karang pada substrat. Penangkapan ikan secara berlebihan yang tersebar luas di Asia Tenggara, dianggarkan mengancam terumbu karang di kawasan tersebut. Penangkapan ikan dengan menggunakan racun akan melepaskan racun sianida ke kawasan terumbu karang. Ia kemudian membunuh atau membius ikan. Karang yang diancam oleh sianida berulang kali akan mengalami pemutihan dan kematian.




Membuang sampah merata-rata,
Hidupan akuatik menjadi mangsa,
Pencemaran sungai di negara maju,
Isu ini menghiasi wacana.




Sunday, 25 September 2011

Malakoff University Duathlon Series Leg 1 Race Brifieng(UPNM)

Hi everyone..i am writting what happen during Malakoff University Duathlon Series Leg 1 Race Brifieng(UPNM)..enjoy:)

I went to UPNM and saw they had a Hari Raya Open Campus..my dad forced me to eat the laksa..i dont really eat laksa and never eat it b4..so..why not i give it a try??sat down near a computer lab..felt uneasy..went to bangunan bestari..sat on a seat which is attched to the pillar..after eating a quater of it..realized i have a race 2morrow..why m i eating an oily food??Abg Chan warned me about it 2 days ago..threw it in the dustbin..stroll around..looking at the foods..met abg kausar..he was suprised tat i m thin..(m i thin??)then bumped into abg zulkarnain..told him its my dad's bday..n he said he wants to buy a cake..ok..then countinued to look 4 food..sadly,tapai finished..dad told me to take some kuih..ok..fine..this is the last..finally,grabbed 2 pieces of karipaps..becoz it was crowded!!finished it..went to the car to take my dad's laptop..

went to his office..gave him a call saying'I hav reached ur office..'happily i went to facebook,youtube,twitter and yahoo mail..chat with gauri(she's my cousin)..told her about my dad and I r cming bk at 6.30 n stuff..v wre planning to do a bday suprise 4 my dad..then,saw Abg Chan n Abg Rahman and some UPNM cadets in the sports section..

lter went down to dewan pendekar..met Abg Chan.. bought some powergel and a powerbar at a cheap price..payed my fees to enter Malakoff...At that time..i  met Adele n Melody..both of them wre busy..Adele gav me a Recycle bag written'Pacesetters'..in the bag..there wre somestuff from Powerbar..a Bottle n a Towel..sat down n listen to Abg Chan..he was conducting the talk..it was about things needed during race,how to use powerbar's supliments..rules during race and many more..it was a good talk..vry reasonable..he ask us a question and i answered his question correctly..i received another powerbar bottle..our Ultraman,Kannan Murugasan handed us the gift..it's not easy to shake hand with him as he's quite famous..

Then.the talk was finished..chat with Adele..my dad gave a short talk to the cadets..at the end,the cadets sang a b'day song to my dad..and Melody gave a free participation to my dad..as a bday gift..i followed staf Jasmi Sarael..one of Malaysia's qualifier to Ironman World Championship in Hawaii....he suggested some place 4 Malakoff in UPNM 4 next year..my dad agreed..

Went to Kolam Renang's canteen.had some food since i haven't had lunch...then went to see cadets's bike..taught kak Fitrah how to use the Cateye Velo 8..tested kak ashikin's bike..talked to Abg Chan..then went to Aaron(my brother)'s university..waited 4 45mins to an hour..then went home..

the lights were closed..my dad was shocked..i went into the house 1st..saw everyone sittin on da couch..then,aaron  cme in..and lastly my dad..everyone suprised him..my dad was vry happy tat all the people who we seldom see cme to the house..we had some briyani,mutton.chicken masala,curry and many more from Jumbo Caters..drinks was punch..(sprite+twister orange+apple juice)..we had a blast..most of my cousins cme down..finally,me n my dad slept at 2am..tats the earliest timee we cn sleep coz me n my dad have a race 2morow..

For now..bye..

Saturday, 24 September 2011

Malakoff University Duathlon Series Leg 1(UPNM)

Hello everyone..I am Asher..this is my 1st time blogging..i have created a blog before this but i didnt have to post anything and i have forgotten my password..i hav done my UPSR and now i have light heart and i dont really need to study(for now)...today,i have entered a duathlon in UPNM organized by Malakoff Co-operation Berhad.

This morning,me and my dad woke up at 6.30a.m..we just grabbed some stuff and went into the car..the bike was already dismental and have been kept in the car..we left at around 7am..we reached UPNM at around 7.30am...I fixed my bike and took my helmet and my race kit and brought it to the cadet's mess were all the UPNM participants garthered..

I met some new faces..some people i have seen but didn't really get to talked to them..like kakFitrah,kak Shikin,Abg Farid,Abg Kausar,Abg Faiz and also kak Syahira..Then,I was helped by Abg Qayyum to put on my race kit..then Abg Zul gave me my cycling pants..brand ELAN..mahal kot..after that,we begin our streatching and a light warm up session..i was suprised to see Dayan and sir Kalam...atleast there's somebody to accompany me..Dayan was in High spirit and he also wore 2XU compression socks..helped Dayan to pump his bicycle..later on,gave a motivation to my Ironman coach..Chan Jun Shen..he's the defending champion for this year..since this is his final year,his wants to give his best at this event..i could also feel a pressed his feeling..he doesn't want to let down all the people who cheered for him..he will be competing with his weapon..Polygon Helios 700..

I went to the car,met my dad..wore my cycling pants..toke my powergel and sraight to bangunan Canselori..there were variety walks of life..some with thick rims..some with muscular leg..even some of them have tattoos..just changed to my racing kit..(cylcing shirt ironman aviva 70.3,ELAN cycling Tights,Speedo Endurance Tights)the cycling shirt belongs to abg Zulkarnain..TQ very much=)..

We(participants)were led by a man in senamrobik..they played some latest songs during senamrobik..after like 10mins..we all garthered at the starting line..Adele who was working with Malakoff gave us a short briefing about our safety..and also our Malaysian one and only Ultraman,Kannan Murugasan gaves us a safety briefing and a motivation..(take it easy kids,its not what you think)Ultraman is a triahtlon event in Canada which occurs a three times Ironman distance..its 3.8km x3 swim...180km x3 cycle..42.2km x3 run...the time given is three days..oh yes..i forgot to tell you..malakoff UPNM distance is 3km run,14km cycle,3km run..then,the whistle blew..

All the cadets were struggling going to the front..i did the same thing to..but it was a big mistake..i experinced a pain at my rib cage..i was like 'Huh??now??why??but i still kept running..later on..i was left slightly behind..my dad who was a strong runner was far away front..then,there was two womens and a man infront of me..we just played around..sometimes i will be infront of them..sometimes i will be at the back of them..so it just cycle tat way..

after finishing my running...i begin to cycle on my new Polygon Helios 300..cycle3...it was quite tough bcoz of the hill and the gears..and also,when ur cycling,some fast cyclist will pass you..you dont know which direction will the be coming from...bcoz of tat,i almost crashed with kak fitrah..so sorry:)..i clocked 47mins for 14km+..it includes the transition..sometimes,i stop by the road side to streatch my backbone and to drink some water..while cycling,i saw kak syahika(also from UPNM)vomitting..maybe she's not use to the nutritions..or maybe it didn't digest properly..told the policeman to help her..but he didn't help her..in UPNM,during cycling,be careful of the tiny deep holes...do also wear sunglasses/spectacles...it is very hot..i mean super HOT!!!

yes,finally...i got down from my bike..escorted by a policeman..(hey..i'm not the last cyclist to get down ok!!)brought my bike to the transittion the pro style..http://www.flickr.com/photos/43259482@N05/5882331699/

Then begin my last run..the time is moving...ran against time..run as far as i could.. catched up with syaikha..walked with her..later on..was suprised she was far at the back of me..told her to catch up..her was pumped out..nvm..itz her 1st time solo..her aim was 4 experince..then..got motivation from the cadets to run..ran as fast as i could..managed to cross the finishing line strongly..my time was 1.42hr..my dad was there too..he finished long time ago..rested and cooled down with water..met Kak Ain and Abg Aiman..then met Dayan..

Later,UPNM did an wardance..it was a good show..giving u the spirit before entering the jungle to fight..prize giving was held..in the open women's university,Nor Juliana Ali was the champion..In mens university..Ong Wei Xiang was 1st and In women's university..Nor Ashikin won the women's university category..ok..i gtg..hope to tell you about next week story..bye..